teradesa.com Mount Krakatau, also known as Krakatoa or Cracatoa, is a volcanic archipelago located in the waters of the Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra.
After a major eruption, Mount Krakatau left the Krakatau archipelago complex consisting of four islands, namely Rakata Island, Sertung Island, Panjang Island and Anak Krakatau.
The first three islands are the remnants of the caldera formation, while Anak Krakatau Mountain grew starting in 1930. The location of Mount Anak Krakatau is included in the Rakata Island area, Rajabasa District, South Lampung Regency, Lampung Province. The height of Mount Anak Krakatau is around 305 meters above sea level (m above sea level) and can still increase along with the release of volcanic material when erupting.
History of Mount Krakatau Eruption
Reporting from the website of the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG), the history of the great eruption of Mount Krakatau was recorded in 1883 whose boom was heard in Singapore and Australia. The eruption of Mount Krakatau on August 27, 1883 was called the largest eruption in history, and threw volcanic material with a volume of 18 km3, while the height of the eruption column was estimated at 80 km.
This eruption caused a tidal wave (tsunami) as high as 30 m along the west coast of Banten and the south coast of Lampung. The force of the tsunami caused a ship named “The Berouw”, which was in Teluk Betung Harbor at the time, to be thrown 3,300 m into the forest.
At least 297 sub-district towns were destroyed by the tsunami, killing around 36,417 people. Apart from the tsunami that occurred after the mountain eruption material rushed into the sea, there were also victims who died because they were scorched by pyroclastic flows that hit the settlement after rolling over the sea surface. the eruption of Mount Krakatau at that time was the strongest in history, with a level 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale. In fact, the eruption of Mount Krakatau is said to have 21,574 times the explosive power of the atomic bomb that melted Hiroshima, Japan, during World War II.
The volcanic ash was so thick that even the sunlight could not penetrate, making the southern islands of Sumatra and Java completely dark. The eruption also made the world dark for two and a half days due to the volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. Not only that, the volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere also resulted in a drop in temperatures around the world, including in the United States, Japan and Europe. For several years, the world experienced weather disruptions that triggered a series of natural disasters and food crises due to crop failures.
History of the birth of Mount Anak Krakatau
After the great eruption of Mount Krakatau, it is known that Mount Anak Krakatau grew starting in 1930. As a result of its eruptions, Mount Anak Krakatau grew larger and taller and formed the cone that can now be observed. The material that came out of the explosive and effusive eruptions of Mount Anak Krakatau increased the height of the cone and expanded its land area.
Mount Anak Krakatau is known as an active volcano until now. The last major eruption experienced by Anak Krakatau in 2018 resulted in a tsunami in the Sunda Strait, known as the Banten Tsunami 2018. The tsunami incident occurred on Saturday (12/22/2018) night until Sunday (12/23/2018) at 22:00 WIB. The tsunami wave of more than 2 meters high hit the coast of Banten and Lampung and killed 437 people. As of October 2022, the status of Mount Anak Krakatau is at Level III Alert with a recommendation not to approach or do activities within a 5 km radius of the active crater.
Path to Mount Anak Krakatau
Reporting from the website of the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG), the Krakatau Volcano Complex can be reached from several sea routes. The first route can be reached from Tanjung Priok Port by using Jet-Foils or Cruise Ships.
The second route can be reached from Labuan Fishing Port in Pandeglang Regency, Banten using motorboats or fishing boats. The third route is taken from Canti Harbor in Rajabasa District, South Lampung Regency using a motorboat or fishing boat that will pass Sebuku Island and Sebesi Island.
Interesting Facts about Mount Anak Krakatau
Mount Anak Krakatau, known to have an area of about 320 hectares, is a popular tourist spot especially among climbers and volcano researchers. Due to its active status and sudden eruption, it is not surprising that the entire area is an uninhabited island. Mount Anak Krakatau is also included in the Krakatau nature reserve area managed by the Natural Resources Conservation Agency (BKSDA) of Lampung Province.