teradesa.com Perlak Kingdom or Peureulak Sultanate is the oldest and first Islamic kingdom in the archipelago.
Perlak Kingdom is located in Perlak region, East Aceh. It is estimated that the Perlak Kingdom was established in the 9th century, precisely in 840 – 1292 AD.
Although touted as the oldest kingdom, some evidence about the Perlak Kingdom from the fragments of its history is not enough to support it because it is limited.
The Beginning of Perlak Kingdom
According to the manuscript of Hikayat Aceh, the founder of the Sultanate of Perlak came from a group of preaching from Mecca, Saudi Arabia who came to the Perlak area in 506 Hijri.
One of the group was Sayyid Ali Al-Muktabar who later married a local girl, Tansyir Dewi.
The marriage of Sayid Ali and Tansyir Dewi was blessed with a son, Allaidin Sayyid Maulana Abdul Aziz Syah, who became the founder of the Perlak Kingdom and the first king.
Allaidin Sayyid Maulana Abdul Aziz Syah was of the Shia faith. One day, the Shia and Sunni followers were in opposition, so the Alue Meuh agreement was made and the government was divided into two.
Perlak Baroh (Shia) was centered on the coast while Perlak Tunong (Sunni) was inland. One day Perlak Baroh was destroyed by the Srivijaya Empire until finally the sultanate reunited.
The Kings of Perlak
1. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Sayyid Maulana Abdul Aziz Syah Zhillullah fil Alam (1810 AD)
2. Sultan Alauddin Sayyid Maulana Abdurrahim Syah Zhillulah fil Alam (1833 AD)
3. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Sayyid Maulana Abbas Syah Zhillulah fil Alam (1868 AD)
4. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Sayyid Ali Mughayat Syah Zhillulah fil Alam (1885 AD)
5. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Abdul Qadir Syah Johan Sovereign Zhillulah fil Alam (1887 AD)
6. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Muhammad Amin Syah Zhillullah fil Alam (1892 AD)
7. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Abdul Malik Syah Zhillullah fil Alam (1909 AD)
8. Sultan Marhum Alauddin Sayyid Mahmud Syah Zhillullah fil Alam (1930 AD)
The Glory of Perlak Kingdom
In the Encyclopedia of Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia, the peak of the glory of the Perlak Kingdom was due to their success in the field of commerce.
Perlak Kingdom was famous as a producer of the best quality wood. This type of good wood from Perlak is often used as material for shipbuilding.
Perlak also developed rapidly into a commercial port in the 8th century and was visited by large ships from Arabia and Persia.
Not only in terms of commerce, the religion of Islam in Perlak also developed so that it became the center of the spread of Muslims. Many Perlak locals intermarried with Muslim merchants.
The decline of the Perlak Kingdom
The cause of the decline of the Perak Kingdom was when it was ruled by Sultan Mahmud Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan who underwent friendship politics.
Sultan Mahmud Alauddin married off his two daughters to kings from the neighboring kingdom of Perlak.
Princess Ratna Kemala was married to the King of Malacca, Parameswara, and Princess Ganggang was married to King Al Malik Al-Saleh of Pasai.
After Sultan Mahmud Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan died, the condition of the Perlak Kingdom began to be unstable and regressed.
The merchants left Perlak slowly. Then the Perlak Kingdom was taken over by the King of Pasai and joined the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai.