teradesa.com  When studying the history of the development of Islam in Indonesia, detikers will get a discussion about the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai.
The Kingdom of Samudera Pasai played an important role in the spread of Islam in the archipelago, as well as in Southeast Asia. In its era, this kingdom was the center of foreign trade.

So, what is the history of Samudera Pasai Kingdom? And who were the leaders who once ruled?

History of Samudera Pasai Kingdom
Quoting the book Tinggalan Sejarah Samudera Pasai by CISAH, it is said that the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai was first discovered through the existence of three inscribed tombstones found two in Leubok Tuwe, Meurah Mulia, and one in Matang Ulim, North Aceh Regency area.

The content of the tombstones depicts that there was an Islamic government that took place in the middle of the 7th century Hijri or 13 AD. It was then that the first milestone of the Samudera Pasai kingdom developed.

Samudera Pasai Kingdom became one of the strongest fortresses in the archipelago. The kingdom was founded by an Egyptian army leader, Nasimuddin al-Kalmil, with the original name of Samudera Kingdom.

Samudera Kingdom is referred to as the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia. The development of Samudera Pasai Kingdom happened when Sriwijaya Kingdom was in decline due to the resistance from Cola Kingdom.

The development of Samudera Kingdom became more rapid during the reign of Sultan Malikul Saleh or Sultan Malik al-Saleh in 1285-1297. He became the first sultan after ascending the throne and was appointed by Nazimuddin al-Kamil, the founder of Samudera Kingdom.

Sultan Malik al-Saleh was famous for spreading Islam in Southeast Asia. One of the main things he tried to counteract was the Shia ideology, which was already spreading at that time.

Samudera Kingdom expanded to Pasai Kingdom. During the reign of Sultan Malikul Thahir in 1297-1326, the kingdom expanded its reach again. Then, the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai was born, which grew until it became the main stopover for traders from the East.

The glory of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom occurred during the reign of Sultan Malik At-Tahir II or Sultan Ahmad. This glory is proven by Marcopolo’s record which mentions that the center of a highly developed trade occurred during his reign. Sultan Malik At-Tahir II ruled from 1326-1349 AD.

Development Factors of Samudera Pasai Kingdom
The development of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom was mediated by the following factors:

1.Marriage Politics
Political marriage became a common practice among royalty to expand their political territory. At that time, the average trader from Hadramaut was male. Therefore, many Easterners married Nusantara residents, which strengthened the influence of the spread of Islam in Samudera Pasai.

2.Trade Politics
At that time, the key holders of trade there were Islamic traders. They held the monopoly on trade to and from Europe.

3.Politics of Conquest
This political method of conquest is different from other factors which are fairly subtle. Conquest politics utilizes attacks such as those carried out by the Samudera Kingdom to the Pasai Kingdom or the Demak Kingdom to the Majapahit Kingdom.

List of Leaders of Samudera Pasai Kingdom
Launching the Aceh Government website, here is the list of Sultans in Samudera Pasai Kingdom:

1 Sultan Malikul Saleh (1267-1297 AD)
2 Sultan Muhammad Malikul Zahir (1297-1326 AD)
3 Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1326 – ± 1345 AD)
4 Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (?- 1346 AD)
5 Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir who ruled around 1346-1383 AD
6 Sultan Zain Al-Abidin Malik Az-Zahir who ruled from 1383-1405 AD
7 Sultanah Nahrasiyah, who ruled from 1405-1412 AD
8 Sultan Sallah Ad-Din who ruled from around 1402 AD
9 The ninth sultan was Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir who ruled until around 1455 AD
10 Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir, reigned around 1455-1477 AD
11 Sultan Zain Al-‘Abidin, reigned around 1477-1500 AD
12 Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir, who reigned around 1501-1513 AD
13 Sultan Zain Al’Abidin, who ruled from 1513-1524 AD

Relics of Samudera Pasai Kingdom
Some of the relics of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom are as follows:

1. Relief
The reliefs of Samudera Pasai Kingdom are in the form of lamps containing the sentence of monotheism on tombstones. This relic indicates that the teaching of monotheism was the main task of the rulers of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom era for more than three centuries.

2. Gold Currency
Gold currency is one of the relics of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom in the form of coins and contains Arabic writing.

3. Tomb of Sultan Malik Al-Saleh
The tomb of Sultan Malik Al-Saleh found by historians is a sign that Islam has entered Indonesia since the 13th century or possibly before that.


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