teradesa.com Cirebon Kingdom is an Islamic kingdom or sultanate located in Cirebon, West Java.
The history of the establishment of the Cirebon Kingdom dates back to the 14th century. The kingdom reached its heyday in the 15th century with the famous king being Syarif Hidayatullah or Sunan Gunung Jati.
The following is the history of the Cirebon Kingdom
Cirebon was originally a small village founded by Ki Gedeng Tapa. This village was then developed by Ki Gedeng Alang-Alang and became known as Tegal Alang-Alang.
In the 14th century, Raden Walangsungsang, the eldest son of the King of Pajajaran, Prabu Siliwangi came to this village. He came with his sister, Nyai Rara Santang.
Raden Walangsungsang, whose title was Prince Cakrabuana, built the area and changed its name to Caruban. This name gradually changed to Cirebon because the people made shrimp paste and petis from water or cai and shrimp or rebon into cai-rebon.
Under the leadership of Prince Cakrabuana, Cirebon grew rapidly as a stopover for traders because of its strategic location on the border of West Java and Central Java. Many Islamic traders from Arabia, Gujarat and China settled in Cirebon. Islam also developed in Cirebon.
One day, Prince Cakrabuana and Lara Santang went on a pilgrimage. On the way, Lara Santang married the Sultan of Egypt, Syarif Abdillah bin Nurul Alim. From this marriage, Syarif Hidayatullah was born in 1448.
Syarif Hidayatullah was raised with strong Islamic knowledge. He was trusted to spread Islam in Cirebon and West Java. Syarif Hidayatullah is also one of the wali songo known as Sunan Gunung Jati. He married his cousin, Prince Cakrabuana’s daughter, Nyai Pakungwati.
In the journal A Brief History of the Cirebon Kingdom by Heru Erwantoro, in 1479, Sunan Gunung Jati received permission from Pangeran Cakrabuana to stop tribute to the Pajajaran Kingdom. This termination of tribute was also a sign that Cirebon was breaking away from the Pajajaran Kingdom.
Since then the Sultanate of Cirebon or the Kingdom of Cirebon officially stood as an independent kingdom or region. Sunan Gunung Jati became the first king of the Cirebon Kingdom. A number of other sources mention Prince Cakrabuana as the first king in the Sultanate of Cirebon.
The heyday of the Cirebon Kingdom
The Cirebon Kingdom reached its heyday under the leadership of Sunan Gunung Jati from 1479-1956. Cirebon was very advanced in religion, politics and trade.
There are a number of reasons that made the Cirebon Kingdom experience a golden age when it was led by Sunan Gunung Jati.
1. Successfully made Cirebon independent from the Sunda Pajajaran Kingdom.
2. Successfully expanded its power to half of West Java and Banten.
3. Successfully Islamized the population in its territory.
4. Built infrastructure for ports, palaces, roads and mosques.
5. Created a security force.
After Sunan Gunung Jati died, the Cirebon Kingdom slowly experienced a period of decline until it collapsed.
King of Cirebon Kingdom
Apart from Sunan Gunung Jati, there were a number of sultans or kings who ruled the Cirebon Kingdom.
The following are the kings of the Cirebon Kingdom:
1. Sunan Gunung Jati 1479-1586
2. Fatahillah 1568-1570
3. Pangeran Mas or Panembahan Ratu I 1570-1649
4. Pangeran Rasmi or Panembahan Ratu II 1649-1677
The collapse of the Cirebon Kingdom
After Panembahan Ratu II died in 1677, there was a vacancy in the Kingdom of Cirebon. Divisions began to occur due to the coronation of three sons. The Sultanate was divided into three.
The sultanate was able to run well until another split occurred in 1807.
During the colonial period, around 1906-1926, the Kingdom of Cirebon was officially abolished and replaced by the City of Cirebon.
Traces of the legacy of the Cirebon Kingdom
The Cirebon Kingdom left evidence of relics that can still be seen today. Here are the traces of the Cirebon Kingdom heritage:
1. The Kasepuhan Palace building in Cirebon which was built by Prince Cakrabuana.
2. Kanoman Palace building in Cirebon which was founded by Prince Kertawijaya.
3. The building of Kacirebon Palace.
4. The tomb of Sunan Gunung Jati.
That is the history of the establishment of the Cirebon Kingdom, the heyday, the ruling king, until the collapse of the Cirebon Kingdom.