teradesa.com The Srivijaya Empire is known as one of the largest maritime kingdoms in Indonesia. At that time, Sriwijaya controlled the main trade route in the Malacca Strait. Sriwijaya was a Buddhist kingdom.
It is said that the name Sriwijaya, taken from Sanskrit, means ‘Sri’ which means light or luminous and ‘Wijaya’ which means victory or glory.
Thus, the meaning of the name Sriwijaya is a glorious victory.
The Beginning of the Srivijaya Kingdom
The record of the founding of the Sriwijaya Kingdom was first researched by a French scholar, George Coedes in the 1920s. At that time he published his findings in a Dutch and Indonesian newspaper.
The Srivijaya Kingdom is predicted to have been established in the 6th century AD based on the travel notes of a monk I Tzing who wrote about his 6-month stopover in the Srivijaya Kingdom.
In addition, the record of the founding of Sriwijaya is based on the discovery of a number of 6th century inscriptions.
Srivijaya Kingdom Government Center
The exact location of the Srivijaya Kingdom’s government is still debated to this day. According to the inscription of Kedudukan Bukit (683), the center of the Sriwijaya Kingdom was located on the banks of the Musi River, Palembang.
This theory is reinforced by George Coedes’ research and is referred to as the Palembang Theory.
However, recent research conducted by the University of Indonesia in 2013 found a number of Buddhist temple sites in Muaro Jambi.
The temple ruins are thought to be the residences of Buddhist scholars. It is said that in the past, the Sriwijaya Kingdom housed many Buddhist scholars and monks.
Founders of Sriwijaya Kingdom
The first king of Sriwijaya Kingdom was Dapunta Hyang or known as Sri Jayanasa. Dapunta’s name as the king of Sriwijaya Kingdom is based on I Tshing’s notes and records on inscriptions such as the Kedudukan Bukit Inscription and the Talang Tuo Inscription.
In I Tsing’s notes and inscriptions, it is mentioned that Dapunta Hyang became the king of Sriwijaya Kingdom after taking a holy journey or Siddhayatra using a boat.
Dapunta brought thousands of soldiers and fleets to conquer several areas in Jambi, Palembang, Lampung and Bangka. Some records mention that Dapunta also tried to attack kingdoms on the island of Java.
The Glorious Period of Srivijaya
The glory of Sriwijaya was during the reign of Balaputradewa. The Srivijaya Kingdom conquered many strategic trade routes and many other kingdoms.
It is said that the power and influence of the Sriwijaya Kingdom reached Thailand and Cambodia. This can be seen in the Borom That Pagoda which is styled after Srivijaya architecture in Chaiya, Thailand.
Its location on the trade route made it easy for Sriwijaya to sell natural products such as camphor, agarwood, cloves, sandalwood, nutmeg and cardamom.
The Decline of Srivijaya
As the leadership of the Sriwijaya Kingdom changed, it began to receive many attacks from other kingdoms, especially kingdoms on the island of Java. One of the onslaughts was an attack from the Medang Kingdom in East Java.
In addition, the Srivijaya Kingdom also received multiple attacks from the Cola Kingdom, weakening its power in the Malacca Strait, which slowly managed to conquer other areas of Srivijaya.
Names of the Kings of Sriwijaya Kingdom
The glory days of the Srivijaya Kingdom lasted for a long time. This was marked by the long succession of Srivijaya kings before it was completely destroyed.
Unfortunately, the structure of the Srivijaya kings has yet to be recorded for accuracy due to the lack of valid evidence. The following is a list of the kings of Sriwijaya Kingdom.
-Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa
-Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa
That is the history of the Sriwijaya Kingdom from its heyday to its collapse that can add insight into understanding the kingdoms in the archipelago.