teradesa.com The shape is indeed fairly simple, not as big as the grand mosques with contemporary designs built in big cities. But this mosque in Surabaya City is actually the most targeted mosque by pilgrims or people who like religious tourism.
Even during the month of Ramadan, people who visit the Sunan Ampel Mosque can be above 10,000 people. It even reaches 20,000 people on certain dates, namely odd nights in the last half of Ramadan, such as the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th of Ramadan.
The calm and cool Sunan Ampel Mosque is considered very supportive for dhikr and prayer. Moreover, as the third oldest mosque in Indonesia, this mosque has a very interesting history. It witnessed the struggle of the Wali Songo in spreading Islam in Indonesia.
Naturally, pilgrims not only come from various parts of the country, but also from various parts of the world. Such as China, France, the Netherlands, Malaysia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Germany, the Philippines, Brunei Darussalam, Greece, New Zealand and South Korea.
These tourists want to make a pilgrimage to the Tomb of Sunan Ampel while admiring the unique architecture of the mosque. How beautiful is the Sunan Ampel Mosque, which in 1972 was officially designated as a religious tourism site by the Surabaya City Government?
The location of Sunan Ampel Mosque
Sunan Ampel Mosque is located in the northern part of Surabaya, in Semampir sub-district. To be precise, Jalan Masjid Ampel no. 53, Ampel Village. The area is known as the santri area because there are many Islamic boarding schools there. Such as diniyah school religious education and various taklim assemblies.
You could say, the Sunan Ampel Mosque is in the middle of the city, so access to the mosque is very easy both by private and public transportation. Moreover, not far from the mosque there are stations and ports. Here are some ways to get to this mosque.
If you take a private vehicle, you can start from the city center, or Surabaya City Hall. From that area, enter Jalan Walikota Mustajab, then turn right onto Jalan Genteng Kali. Then turn right to cross the bridge to Undaan Kulon Street until Bunguran Street.
Follow the road until you pass Atomic Market and enter Jalan Dukuh. Then turn right onto Jalan Nyamplungan. From the road, Sunan Ampel Mosque will be seen on the left.
If you are using train transportation, look for trains that stop at Surabaya Kota or Semut Station. The distance from Surabaya Kota Station to Sunan Ampel Mosque is quite close, only about 1.42 kilometers. You can use becak transportation to get to the mosque.
In addition, you can also use angkot D, Joyoboyo-Sidorame route, then get off at the entrance gate leading to Sunan Ampel Mosque and the tomb on Jalan Nyamplungan.
Tanjung Perak Harbor
The distance of Sunan Ampel Mosque from Tanjung Perak Port is also not too far, only about 1.6 kilometers. From the port, take the USP angkot Ujung-Perak-Petojo route, then get off opposite the gate. From there you can just walk to the gate of Sunan Ampel Mosque and tomb on Jalan Nyamplungan.
Purabaya Bungurasih Bus Terminal
From Purabaya Terminal, you can continue your journey by bus to Jembatan Merah Plaza. From there, you can use becak or walk because the distance is only 0.65 kilometers to Sunan Ampel Mosque.
Alternatively, from Bungurasih Terminal, you can take bus P5, which majors in Purabaya-Tol-JMP, then get off at Tugu Pahlawan. From there, take angkot D, Joyoboyo-Sidorame, and get off at the entrance gate of Sunan Ampel Mosque on Jalan Nyamplungan.
History of Sunan Ampel Mosque
Established since the Majapahit era, Sunan Ampel Mosque became the starting point for the spread of Islam in the archipelago.
The mosque is named after its founder, Raden Muhammad Ali Rahmatullah or Raden Rahmat who was later known as Sunan Ampel. Sunan Ampel was one of the Wali Songo, the spreaders of Islam in Java.
At that time, the Majapahit government gave Raden Rahmat the task of educating the morals of Majapahit nobles and courtiers. He was given 12 hectares of land in Ampeldenta. It was in this place that he began his Islamic proselytization before spreading to other areas of Java. He also received the name Sunan Ampel.
Sunan Ampel built a mosque in the Ampeldenta area in 1421 with two of his friends, Mbah Sholeh and Mbah Sonhaji, and their students. This mosque also became the starting point for the spread of Islam in Java, as the influence of Majapahit, the largest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, weakened and the Demak Sultanate was established.
In addition to building a mosque, Sunan Ampel also built the Ampel Islamic Boarding School. Unfortunately, there is no clear literature on who took care of the management of the mosque after Sunan Ampel died. It was only around 1970 that a nadzir was formed to manage this mosque.
The first nadzir was the late KH Muhammad bin Yusuf, then replaced by KH Nawai Muhammad until 1998. At present, although the nadzir of Sunan Ampel Mosque has not been officially formed, the management of the mosque is carried out by KH Ubaidilah. While the Chairman of the Mosque Takmir is H. Mohammad Azmi Nawawi.
In its journey, the Sunan Ampel Mosque experienced several expansions. Adipati Aryo Cokronegoro was the first official to expand by adding buildings to the north of the mosque. Then Adipati Regent Raden Aryo Nitiadiningrat expanded it to 22, 70X50, 55 meters in 1926.
Sunan Ampel Mosque received another expansion in 1954. It was carried out by KH Manaf Murtadho. He expanded the mosque to 25, 70X50 meters. Until now, the area of Sunan Ampel Mosque is around 4,000 square meters.
Architecture of Sunan Ampel Mosque
The architecture of Sunan Ampel Mosque is a combination of Javanese, Islamic and Hindu traditions.
The architecture of Sunan Ampel Mosque has a high philosophy. It is not only a beautiful and artful building. Every detail of the building has a very deep meaning and significance. The embodiment of Islamic values melted into Javanese-Hindu architecture. Here is the beauty and philosophy of this mosque building.
Teak Wood Material
The Sunan Ampel Mosque building is supported by 16 poles made of teak wood. This more than 600-year-old pole has a length of 17 meters without joints with a diameter of 60 centimeters. The length of 17 meters symbolizes the number of rakats of prayer in a day.
On each pole there are ancient carvings made during the Majapahit era. The meaning of the carvings is the Oneness of God. Meanwhile, the teak wood is imported from several regions in East Java.
Not just any teak wood, because the wood is believed to have ‘karomah’. It is said that when foreign troops attacked Surabaya with heavy weapons, the Sunan Ampel Mosque remained standing without being disturbed at all.
The mosque has 48 doors around the mosque wall. These doors are the original doors since the beginning of the mosque. The width of each door is about 1.5 meters with a height of about 2 meters.
The doors are curved on top. This shows the influence of Arabic architecture on the Sunan Ampel Mosque building. Because the arch pattern is not known in Javanese architecture. Translucent carvings similar to fans appear between the doors and the upper arch.
The roof of this mosque adapts Majapahit architecture. It can be seen from the tajug roof, which is a square pyramid-shaped, three-sided pyramidal. In Javanese tradition, the tajug represents a mountain that is considered a sacred place.
Indeed, the triple roof is a Hindu-Javanese element. But in this mosque, the triple roof is interpreted as Islam, Iman and Ihsan, the perfection of a Muslim’s Islam. Islam, Iman, and Ihsan are the core of the religious teachings brought by the Prophet.
The minaret is one of the uniqueness or characteristics of this mosque. Unlike the mosques in general, the minaret of Sunan Ampel Mosque is basically inside the mosque, then through the roof.
The tower, which is located in the south of the mosque, rises to a height of 50 meters. It is said that the tower has undergone three changes, namely in 1870-1900, then 1910-1930, and finally 2012 until now.
There are five gates built in the mosque area. The gate is said to come from the Arabic ghafura which means forgiveness, so that anyone who will enter the mosque should ask for forgiveness first. The five gates symbolize the five pillars of Islam.
First, the gate in the south is called Gapuro Munggah (munggah in Javanese means up). This gate symbolizes the fifth pillar of Islam, the pilgrimage.
The second gate is called Gapuro Poso (fasting). This gate, which is located in the south, teaches Muslims to fast. The third gate, Gapura Ngamal (charity) symbolizes the importance of helping fellow humans.
On the west side there is Gapura Madep (means facing), which symbolizes facing the Qibla for prayer. And the fifth gate is Gapura Paneksan (testimony), which means testimony that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad SAW is the messenger of Allah.
Sunan Ampel Mosque Facilities and Activities
The facilities in this mosque are ordinary, like mosques in general, such as prayer rooms, ablutions, and an area for reading the holy verses. The parking area at the mosque is quite large. In addition, there is a resting place for worshipers to simply stretch their legs.
Behind the mosque is the tomb complex of Sunan Ampel who died in 1481. This complex is always crowded with pilgrims. On the left side of the mosque courtyard there is a well that is said to be lucky.
In addition to the five daily congregational prayers, the mosque also holds regular recitations. Arabic lessons are also held here at the Arabic Language Institute for non-degree programs. The teaching and learning process is carried out in the building on the east side of the mosque.
During the month of Ramadan, the Sunan Ampel Mosque is increasingly crowded with Muslims. Most of them come to do dhikr in the mosque and make a pilgrimage to Sunan Ampel’s grave.
Near the mosque there is one popular place, the Arab Village. It is called Arab Village because this area is mostly occupied by descendants of Yemeni Arabs and Chinese. They have settled there for hundreds of years to trade. The trading life there is reminiscent of the atmosphere of Mecca City.
In the long alley of Kampung Arab, stalls are lined up. They sell a variety of Islamic trinkets, such as robe, prayer equipment, perfume, and cosmetics. There is also a variety of Middle Eastern-style cuisine, such as kebuli rice, kebabs, various processed goat, biryani rice, and maryam bread. Festive.