teradesa.com There are many Islamic kingdoms spread across the archipelago. One of them is the Ternate Kingdom which is the oldest Islamic kingdom in the archipelago. The kingdom was founded by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257 AD.
Quoted from the Ministry of Religion’s Lektur page, Ternate was known as a city producing spices, such as nutmeg, pepper, and others. This made Ternate nicknamed as The Spice Island.
In its development, the Ternate Kingdom reached its peak of glory when it was ruled by Sultan Baabullah (1570-1583 AD). For more details, see the history, location, and heritage of the Ternate Kingdom below.
History of Ternate Kingdom
Launching the book Encyclopedia of Islamic Kingdoms in Indonesia by Amarseto Binuko, the Ternate Kingdom began with the existence of four villages, each headed by a clan chief or called Momole.
Then the four villages agreed to make a kingdom but at that time the king and his people were not known by religion. After deliberation, the Momole agreed to appoint Momole Ciko as king. Momole Ciko officially became the first king of the Ternate Kingdom with the title Baab Mashur Malamo since 1257 AD.
Quoting the book Knowing the Kingdoms of the Archipelago by Deni Prasetyo, in the 14th century the Ternate Sultanate and the Tidore Sultanate were established in the North Maluku region. These two kingdoms were famous for their spices and their high prices made the people in Maluku prosperous.
By the mid-15th century, the spice trade in Maluku was getting busier. Many Javanese, Malay, Arab and Chinese traders came to Maluku to buy spices.
The relationship between traders in Maluku and Javanese traders became more intimate. This then facilitated the process of spreading Islam to the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore.
In the beginning, the sultanate, which was formerly known as the Gapi Kingdom, was not yet Islamic. Islam began to spread in the 14th century, but the royal family only embraced Islam during the reign of King Kolano Marhum (1432-1486 AD).
When Kolano Mahrum was in power, a man from Java named Maulana Husein came to teach him to read the Quran and write Arabic letters. This made the king, the royal family and the people of Ternate interested in embracing Islam.
Kolano Marhum became the first King of Ternate to embrace Islam. His son, Zainal Abidin, who ruled from 1486-1500 AD, began to enforce Islamic laws. After transforming into an Islamic sultanate, the title kolano or king was then changed to sultan.
The Ternate Kingdom began to decline after Sultan Baabullah died in 1583 AD. Shortly afterwards, the Spanish attacked and captured Fort Gamulamu in 1606 AD.
From then on, the VOC held the rights to the trade monopoly and began to establish forts in Ternate. By the end of the 17th century, the Kingdom of Ternate was fully under VOC control.
Location of Ternate Kingdom
Ternate Kingdom is located in the west of Halmahera Island, North Maluku. Ternate is a relatively old city because it was established before the Middle Ages and became the largest center of Islamic civilization in the Eastern Archipelago in its day.
Ternate City also once earned the nickname Al Mullukiah, because in addition to being the center of Islamic civilization it also became the center of government and trade center.
Relics of Ternate Kingdom
Here are some relics of the Ternate Kingdom.
Ternate Sultanate Palace
Jami Mosque of Ternate Sultanate
Ternate Sultan Cemetery Complex
Relics in the Ternate Sultanate Museum, such as war tools, the king’s throne, to the Al Quran written by the king.
Thus a brief history of the Ternate Kingdom, its location, and objects and buildings. Hopefully it can be useful!