teradesa.com Gowa Tallo Kingdom is the largest Islamic kingdom in South Sulawesi. Gowa Tallo Kingdom was established around the 16th century. Gowa Tallo Kingdom is also known as Makassar Kingdom.
Gowa-Tallo Kingdom was a joint kingdom of Gowa Kingdom and Tallo Kingdom owned by two brothers. During the reign of King Daeng Matanre Karaeng Tumapa’risi Khallona, these two kingdoms were united.
Gowa and Tallo united on the basis of an agreement, so that the people did not favor anyone but had two kings who each had a territory.
At the end of the 16th century, Sultan Alauddin became the first king to embrace Islam in the Kingdom of Gowa Tallo. This was also a sign that Gowa Tallo Kingdom became a sultanate.
The growth of Islam in Gowa grew rapidly. In the second year of the sultanate, all the people were successfully Islamized.
The Glorious Period of Gowa Tallo Kingdom
The heyday of the Kingdom of Gowa Tallo occurred under the leadership of Sultan Hasanuddin, the 16th King of Gowa, as well as an Indonesian national hero.
The Kingdom of Gowa Tallo reached its peak when it was under the leadership of Sultan Hasanuddin in 1653-1669. The 16th King of Gowa, who is also a national hero, succeeded in advancing the education and culture of Gowa Tallo.
The figure of Sultan Hasanuddin, nicknamed the Rooster from the East, is known to be not easily influenced by foreigners. He also strongly opposed the presence of the VOC when it controlled some small kingdoms in Sulawesi.
During the golden age of the Gowa Tallo Kingdom, this region was once the largest trading center in eastern Indonesia. There were many Muslim merchants from various regions who came to Gowa with the aim of trading.
Gowa Tallo Kingdom was also maritime in nature as most of its people worked as fishermen.
The collapse of Gowa Tallo Kingdom
When the VOC took control of most of the small kingdoms in Sulawesi, Sultan Hasanuddin tried to fight it with the help of the forces of all the kingdoms of Eastern Indonesia.
The war against the Dutch at that time was directly led by Sultan Hasanuddin. However, the invaders actually added troops which made the Gowa camp weakened and pressed.
In 1667, the Makassar Kingdom admitted its defeat by agreeing to sign the Bongaya Agreement. This agreement was considered detrimental to Gowa.
The battle with the colonizers ensued again. At that time, the VOC again asked for additional troops which finally succeeded in knocking down the stronghold of the Sultanate of Gowa.
After losing, Sultan Hasanuddin abdicated and resigned from the kingdom. The agreement is said to be the cause of the collapse of the Sultanate of Gowa.
The Sultanate of Makassar began to experience a leadership transition. When led by Sultan Muhammad Abdul Kadir Aidudin, the sultanate officially became part of the Republic of Indonesia.
Legacy of Gowa Tallo Kingdom
Fort Rotterdam is a fort built at the headquarters of the Gowa Tallo Kingdom troops.
The Kingdom of Gowa Tallo left many historical evidences that can be seen today. Here are some of the relics of Gowa Tallo Kingdom.
1. Balla Lompoa Palace
Balla Lompoa is a palace that once housed the Kings of Gowa and is located in Sungguminasa City. Today, Balla Lompoa Palace has become a cultural site.
2. Tamalate Palace
In addition to Balla Lompoa, there is also Tamalate Palace as a legacy of the glory of the Sultanate of Gowa which is also located in Sungguminasa City.
3. Katangka Mosque
Katangka Mosque or currently called Al-Hilal Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in South Sulawesi which used to be the mosque of the Sultanate of Gowa.
4. Somba Opu Fort
Somba Opu Fort is a silent witness to the history of the Makassar Kingdom, which was previously the center of government and trade.
5. Fort Rotterdam Fort
Fort Rotterdam or Ujung Pandang Fort is the former headquarters of the frogmen of the Gowa Tallo Kingdom, which after the Bongaya Agreement became the property of the Dutch.