teradesa.com The Kaaba is a sacred building for Muslims. It is also the Qibla for all Muslims in the world when they pray. The Kaaba has a key that is held for generations.
As a sacred house that is honored in Islam, the Kaaba has a door and a key. However, not just anyone can enter the Kaaba because they need permission from the King of Saudi Arabia.
The door of the Kaaba is opened twice a year. The first is at the beginning of the month of Syaban because it is to be cleaned. The second is at the beginning of Dhul Hijjah to be cleaned and then put on a new Kiswah. Now the process of replacing the Kiswah is carried out in the month of Muharram.
So, who exactly is assigned to hold and store the keys to the Kaaba?
The Guardians of the Kaaba
Moenawar Khalil in his book entitled Completeness of the tale of the Prophet Muhammad Volume 1, states that Qushay bin Kilab is a figure who built and advanced the Arab nation and the Quraysh tribe. Qushay is also the great-grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad.
Qushay married Hubbah bint Hulayl, the daughter of Hulayl bin Hubshiyyah who was the leader of Banu Khuza’ah. At that time Banu Khuza’ah was a bani who was trusted as the guardian of the Kaaba.
After Hulayl died, Qushay was appointed as the leader of the Banu Khuza’ah and the guardian of the Kaaba, including holding the keys of the Kaaba. As the guardian of the Kaaba, he made arrangements for the pilgrims who came to the Kaaba to be served food and drinking water. The cost for this food was collected from the trade excise and taxes of the people of Makkah.
When Qushay was old and felt that he had not long to live, he made a will to his son, Abdu Manaf, to succeed him at the helm of power in the Hijaz and hold the keys to the Kaaba when he died.
Although Qushay had several sons, Abdu Manaf was considered more intelligent, capable and influential in leading the people of Hijaz. However, because Abdu Manaf knew that the job his father had entrusted to him was not an easy one, he invited his other brothers to become members of the governing council that was in his hands.
Then, when Abdu Manaf was old, he entrusted his son Hashim to continue in that role. Hashim was the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad. Throughout history, after Abdu Manaf died, the position of sidanah (key holder of the Kaaba) was held by Hashim.
The key holder of the Kaaba was entrusted directly by the Prophet Muhammad.
When Hashim was about to die, he also testified to his son named Abdul Muttalib. Abdul Muttalib was the grandfather of the Prophet Muhammad. Later after Hasyim died, Abdul Muttalib who held the leadership of power in Hijaz as well as being in charge of the Kaaba.
Badr A Zimbadani in his book 300 Miracles of Muhammad SAW tells the story after the events of Fathu Mecca. Fathu Makkah is an event that occurred in 630 precisely on the 20th of Ramadan 8 H. The Prophet Muhammad and 10,000 troops managed to take control of Makkah while destroying idols in and around the Kaaba.
After the events of Fathu Makkah, Uthman bin Talhah was the one who inherited the role as caretaker of the Kaaba. The Prophet Muhammad SAW directly appointed this mandate.
When handing over the key to the Kaaba to Uthman bin Talhah, the Prophet Muhammad said: “This is your key, O Uthman. Today is the day of virtue and loyalty, take this (O Uthman and your descendants) forever and ever, no one snatches it from you except the tyrant or his adherents.”
Then, when Uthman died, he bequeathed the key to the Kaaba to his brother, Shibah. That’s how it goes on until now the keys to the Kaaba have been passed down from generation to generation to the children and grandchildren of Bani Syaibah’s descendants.
According to NU Online, the descendants of Bani Syaibah are responsible for caring for the Kaaba, including opening and closing it, cleaning and washing it, and caring for the Kiswah or cloth covering the Kaaba.
The key to the Kaaba is made of nickel and is 35 cm long. The key is plated with 18-karat gold. The key has also undergone several changes and the last was in November 2013.
It should be noted that the inside of the Kaaba is washed twice a year using Zamzam water and rose water. Usually the procession is carried out in the months of Sha’ban and Muharram. More specifically, the current key holder of the Kaaba is Sheikh Saleh bin Zain Al-Abidin Al-Syaibi.